Olimpíada Internacional de Química - Principal

Principal

Iniciada em 1968, na Checoslováqia, a International Chemistry Olympiad, IChO, reúne desde então, a cada ano, no mês de julho, aproximadamente 320 estudantes oriundos de 80 diferentes nações. Cada país pode competir com o máximo de 4 estudantes não-universitários, com idade inferior a 20 anos, que submetem a exames teóricos e práticos durante o período do evento (10 dias).

 


As provas aplicadas são elaboradas por um júri internacional formado por mentores (membros das delegações) e especialistas do país organizador. Ao final do evento, os mais destacados estudantes recebem premios que consistem em medalhas de ouro, prata e bronze. O Brasil iniciou sua participação, com estudantes, neste evento, por ocasião da 31st IChO que se realizou na Tailândia.

 


As olimpíadas seguintes foram organizadas pelos países: Canadá - 1997, Austrália - 1998, Tailândia - 1999, Dinamarca - 2000, Índia - 2001, Holanda - 2002, Grécia- 2003, Alemanha - 2004, Taiwan - 2005, Coréia (2006), Rússia (2007), Hungria (2008), Inglaterra (2009), Japão (2010), Turquia (2011) e USA (2012), Rússia (2013), Vietnam (2014) e Arzeibajão (2015), Geórgia (2016). As próximas estão programadas para os seguintes países:   Tailândia (2017), República Checa + Eslováqia (2018), França (2019), Coreia (2020?), Japão (2021).

 

Países Participantes Olimpíada Internacional de Química


Regulamento

Regulations of the International Chemistry Olympiad  (IChO)
 
 
 
               §1- Aims of the competition
 
The International Chemistry Olympiad (IChO) is a chemistry competition for students at secondary school level with the aim of promoting international contacts in chemistry. It is intended to stimulate the activities of students interested in chemistry by a way of independent and creative solving of chemical problems. The IChO competitions help to enhance friendly relations among young people from different countries; they encourage cooperation and international understanding.
 
                               O r g a n i z a t i o n    o f    I C h O
 
                §2 - Organization and invitation
(1) The IChO is organized every year as a rule at the beginning of July in one of the participating countries by the Education Ministry or another appropriate institution of the organizing country (hereafter referred to as the organizer).
 
(2) The organizer is obliged to invite all countries partici-pating in the previous IChO competition. The official invitation to participate in the forthcoming IChO should be sent to countries by the November proceeding the competition. The invited countries must confirm their participation in the IChO according to requirements of the organizer.

(3) Moreover, other countries may apply for the participation in IChO but the organizer has the right to invite the countries only on agreement with the organizers of two forth-coming IChOs. Incoming countries must send observers to two consecutive Olympiads before its pupils can participate in IChO (see also § 3, section 5)..
 
                   §3 - Delegations
(1) Each participating country's delegation may consist of four competitors and two accompanying persons (also known as mentors). Countries may include one scientific observer in their delegation.
 
(2) The competitors must not be university students. They can only be students of secondary schools which are not specialized in chemistry and, if they are already graduated befoire May 1st in the year of the competition, the organizer must be informed about the month and year of their graduation. Moreover, they must be under the age of 20 at the 1st of July in the year of the competition. The competitors must be pass-port holders of the country they represent or they had to take part in the secondary school educational system of this country for more than one academic year. All members of a delegation must provide themselves with medical insurance for the journey to/from the organizing country and the stay in the country.
 
(3) The mentors act as members of the International Jury (see § 6) and one of them is designated as the head of delegation.
(4) The mentors:
    a) must guarantee the fulfilment of those conditions given in section 2 of this paragraph, 
    b) must be capable of translating the text of competition tasks from English into the mother tongue of their students and be able to judge the set of tasks and correct the work of the students.
    c) have the right to enter a protest which should be addressed to the Chair of the International Jury and, when necessary, ask for solving the problem at the next meeting of the International Jury.
(5) Incoming countries that are invited by the organizer, and intend to take part in future IChOs, may send one scientific observer..
 
                   §4 - Obligations of the Organizer
(1) The organizer provides:
     a) the itinerary of the IChO,
     b) transportation from/to an airport/station decided by the host country on the day of arrival and departure,
     c) the organization of the competition following the regulation,
     d) accident insurance for all participants in connection with the organized programme,
     e) the opportunity for the mentors to inspect the working room and practical apparatus to be used for the practical tasks before the competition takes place,
     f) arrangement for the observance of the safety regulations,
     g) the medals, certificates and prizes, which are presented at the official closing ceremony,
     h) a printed report on the competition to be distributed not later than six months after the competition.

                §5 - Financing
 
(1) The participating country covers the return travel costs of the students and the accompanying persons to the designed airport/station or to the place where the competition is held.
 
(2) The participating country must pay for the participation fee the amount of which must be approved by the International Jury.
 
(3) All other costs in connection with the organized programme, including the costs of accommodation for all competitors and members of the International Jury, are covered by the organizer.
 
(4) The organizer of the next Olympiad may send two observers to the current IChO with their expenses covered by the host as mentioned in the preceding section 3..

 

                        I n s t i t u t i o n s    o f    I C h O
 
                §6 - International Jury
(1) The International Jury consists of its chair and members. The chair of the International Jury is nominated by the organizer. The members of the International Jury are the two mentors from the individual delegations and the chair of the Steering Committee (see § 8).
 
(2) The chair of the International Jury or his/her delegate calls and chairs all the meetings of the International Jury concerning the current competition.
 
(3) Resolutions of common International Jury sessions or its split sessions are passed by the International Jury when they are agreed by a simple majority of votes in the presence of at least 75% of the delegations. Each participating country has one vote. Changes in the regulations can only be done at the common sessions of the International Jury and require a qualified majority of two thirds of the votes. The chair has a casting vote in the event of a tie. The decisions of the International Jury are binding for both organizer and participants.
 
(4) The working language of the International Jury is English.
 
                §7 - Responsibilities of the International Jury
(1) The International Jury:
     a) is in charge of the actual competition and its supervision according to the regulations,
     b) discusses in advance the competition tasks presented by the organizer, their solutions and the marking guidelines, gives com-ments and decides in case of changes,
     c) supervises the marking of the examination papers and guarantees that all participants are judged by equal criteria,
     d) determines the winners and decides on prizes and documents for the competitors,
     e) monitors the competition and suggests changes to the regulations, organization and contents for future IChOs,
     f) takes decisions on excluding of a participant or a whole team from the.competition (see also § 11, section 7),
     g) elects members of the Steering Committee of the IChO,
     h) may form working groups to solve specific chemistry related problems of the IChO.
 
(2) The members of the International Jury:
     a) are obliged to maintain a professional discretion about any relevant information they receive during the IChO and must not assist any participants,
     b) keep the marking and results secret until proclaimed by the International Jury.
 
(3) The working groups of the International Jury should draw its membership from IChO participating countries and those interested in IChO competitions. The working groups meet for working sessions and submit the results of the deliberations to the Steering Committee.
 
                    §8 - Steering Committee
(1) The long term work involved in organizing the International Chemistry Olympiads is coordinated by the Steering Committee.
 
(2) Members of the Committee are elected by the International Jury. They are representatives from various geographical areas (3 from Europe, 1 from
Americas, 1 from Pacific Rim), to serve a two year term. Members are elected for no more than two consecutive terms. Moreover, 1 - 3 members may be selected by the Steering Com-mittee for their particular expertise for periods of one year.
 
(3) There are three ex-officio members of the Steering Committee: a) chair of the current IChO, b) chair of the immediate past IChO, c) chair of the
immediate future IChO.
 
(4) The Steering Committee elects its own Chair. The Chair:
     a) calls and chairs the meetings of the Steering Committee.
     b) calls and chairs the business meetings of the International Jury dealing with general problems of future International Chemistry Olympiads.
     c) has the right to call a special meeting of the International Jury when necessary for some exceptional reasons..
 
(5) The Steering Committee:
     a) provides organizational oversight for the International Chemistry Olympiad,
     b) proposes items for consideration at the International Jury sessions.
 
(6) The Steering Committee has no right to make any decisions about the International Chemistry Olympiad that would interfere with the responsibilities of the International Jury (see § 7 and 8).
 
                    §9 - International Information Center
There is an International Information Center of the International Chemistry Olympiads gathering and providing (when necessary) all the documentation of
the IChOs from the very beginning of the Olympiad to the present. The seat of the Office is in Bratislava, Slovakia.

                            C o m p e t i t i o n
 
                §10 - Preparation for the IChO competition
(1) By the November of the proceeding competition the organizer distributes to all participating countries a set of preparatory tasks written in English. The preparatory tasks must be devised so that students can get a good idea of the type and difficulty of the competition tasks, including safety aspects (see §12 and Appendix "B"). According to Appendix "C" topics of group 3 must be covered in the preparatory problems. SI units must be used throughout the preparatory tasks.
 
(2) The total number of theoretical and experimental tasks in the set of preparatory problems cannot be lower than 25 and 5, respectively.
 
(3) The organizer cannot give theoretical problems of level 3 (Appendix C) from more than 3 fields and a minimum of 6 tasks should be presented in the
set of preparatory problems from each field. Subjects assigned to level 3 can be classified as level 2 if sufficient background is included in the formulation of the problem (e. g. formulas, graphs, structures, equations)..(4) The organizer cannot set an experimental competition task with an experimental technique of level 3 (Appendix D) without mentioning it at least in one of experimental preparatory tasks.
 
(5) Training or any other special instruction, that is carried out for a selected group of 50 or fewer students, containing the IChO team, must be no longer than two weeks.

 

                §11 - Organization of the IChO Competition
(1) The competition consists of two parts: a) part one, the practical (experimental) competition, b) part two, the theoretical competition.
 
(2) A working time of four to five hours is allotted for each part. There is at least one day of rest between the two parts.
 
(3) Competitors receive all the relevant information in the language of their choice and are allowed to write the solutions in that language.
 
(4) There must be no contact between mentors and competitors once the mentors received the competition tasks for consideration. No information about the competition tasks must be passed to the competitors directly or indirectly prior and during the competition.
 
(5) Only non-programmable pocket calculators may be used for the solving of the tasks.
 
(6) The safety regulations announced by the organizer are binding for all participants.
 
(7) Breaking of any rules given in the preceding paragraphs (§ 3. section 2, § 10, section 4, § 11, sections 4, 5, and 6) has as its consequence excluding from the whole or a part of the competition..
 
                §12 - Safety
(1) During the experimental part, the competitors must wear laboratory coats and eye protection. The competitors are expected to bring their own laboratory coats. Other means of protection for laboratory work are provided by the organizer.
 
(2) When handling with liquids, each student must be provided with a pipette ball or filler. Pipetting by mouth is strictly forbidden.
 
(3) The use of very toxic substances (designation T+) is strictly forbidden. The use of toxic substances (designation T) is not recommended, but may be allowed if special precautions are taken. Substances belonging to the categories R 45, R 46, R 47 must not be used under any circumstances (see
Appendix B for definitions of these categories).
 
(4) The organizer provides a list of chemicals from which the chemicals used in practical preparatory and competition tasks are drawn. The list of chemicals must include information of the maximum amounts of materials needed or in the case of solutions their maximum concentrations. Any hazardous materials on the list must be accompanied by detailed instructions for safe handling. The list must be provided together with the preparatory tasks (see § 10). Each participating country has three months to file a substantiated dissent concerning the use of a special chemical. Silence indicates acceptance. The organizer should try to revise the list in order to satisfy any objections. The final revision of the list will be distributed to the delegation leaders at the start of the Olympiad.
 
(5) Detailed recommendations involving students´ safety and the handling and disposal of chemicals can be found in Appendices A 1, A 2, and B.
     a) Appendix A 1: Safety Rules for Students in the laboratory.
     b) Appendix A 2: Safety Rules and Recommendations for the Host Country of the IChO.
     c) Appendix B contains: B 1: Hazard Warning Symbols and Hazard
    Designations and their explanation. B 2: R-Ratings and S-Provisions: Nature of special risks (R) and safety advice (S)..
 
                §13 - Competition Tasks
(1) The organizer is responsible for the preparation of competition tasks by competent experts/authors, who constitute the Scientific Board of the IChO.
They propose the methods of solution and the marking scheme.
 
(2) The tasks, their solutions and the marking schemes are submitted to the International Jury for consideration and approval. The authors of the tasks
should be present during the discussion.
 
(3) The Chair of the International Jury may put the Chair of the Scientific Board in charge of the proceedings when the tasks are considered.
 
(4) The total length of the theoretical or experimental tasks must not exceed 10,000 characters. SI units must be used throughout the competition tasks.
 
(5) In the experimental part of the competition the following conditions must be fulfilled:
     a) The experimental part must contain at least two independent tasks.
     b) No part of the grade can subjectively be evaluated by the staff.
     c) Competitors must receive the same substances when solving the tasks from qualitative analytical chemistry.
     d) When solving tasks from quantitative analytical chemistry competitors must receive the same substances but with different concentrations.
     e) In evaluating the quantitative tasks the master values must not be based on average results of the competitors.
     f) The great majority of the grade in quantitative tasks must be given to the mean value as reported by the competitors while some marks may also be given to the corresponding equations, calculations, or explanations directly related to the work. Points must not be awarded for reproducibility.
 
                §14 - Correcting and Marking
(1) A maximum of 60 points is allocated to the theoretical tasks and 40 points to the practical tasks, making a total of 100 points.
 
(2) The competition tasks are corrected independently by the authors and by the mentors. Consequential marking should be used so that students are not.punished twice for the same error. Both corrections are then compared, however, the authors present their evaluation first. After a discussion
 
(3) The International Jury discusses the results and decides on the final scores.
 
(4) In order to eliminate any doubts about possible mistakes in the processing of the results the organizer must provide the mentors with a list of their
students' total results before the closing awards' ceremony.
 
                §15 - Results and Prizes
(1) Official results of the competition and the number of medals awarded are decided by the International Jury.
 
(2) The number of gold medals awarded is in the range of 8% to 12%, silver 18% to 22%, and bronze medals 28% to 32% of the total number of
competitors. The exact number of medals is decided on the basis of an anonymous review of the results.
 
(3) Every medalist must receive the medal and a corresponding certificate from the organizer.
 
(4) In addition to the medals other prizes may be awarded.
 
(5) An honourable mention is awarded to competitots who do not receive a medal, but gain full marks for at least one problem.
 
(6) Each competitor receives a certificate of participation.
 
(7) In the awarding ceremony, the non medalists are called in alphabetical order.
 
(8) No team classification takes place.
 
(9) The organizer must provide a complete list of results as a part of the final report..
 
                §16 - Final Regulations
(1) Those who take part in the competition acknowledge these regulations through their very participation.
 
(2) This version of regulations has been approved by the International Jury in Bangkok (Thailand) in July 1999 and is issued to replace the former one
approved in Oslo (Norway) in 1994.

Programa

INTERNATIONAL   CHEMISTRY  OLYMPIAD

PROGRAM

 

Level 1: These topics are included in the overwhelming majority of secondary school chemistry programs and need not be mentioned in the preparatory problems.

Level 2: These topics are included in a substantial number of secondary school programs and maybe used without exemplification in the preparatory problems.

Level 3: These topics are not included in the majority of secondary school programs and can only be used in the competition if examples are given in the preparatory problems.

 

Theoretical part

 

1. The atom

1.1.

Introduction

 

 

1.1.1.

Counting of nucleons

1

 

1.1.2.

Isotopes

1

1.2.

The hydrogen atom

 

 

1.2.1.

Concept of energy levels

1

 

1.2.2.

Shape of s-orbitals

1

 

1.2.3.

Shape and orientation of p-orbitals

1

 

1.2.4.

Shape and orientation of d-orbitals

3

 

1.2.5.

Understanding the simplest Schrodinger equation

3

 

1.2.6.

Square of the wave function and probability

3

 

1.2.7.

Quantum numbers (n, l, ml)

3

1.3.

Radioactivity

 

 

1.3.1.

Types of radioactivity

1

 

1.3.2.

Radioactive decay

1

 

1.3.3.

Nuclear reactions

2

 

 

 

 

2. Chemical bonding

2.1.

VSEPR – Simple molecular structures with

 

 

2.1.1.

no more than four electron pairs about central atom

1

 

2.1.2.

with central atom exceeding the “octet rule”

3

2.2.

Delocalization and resonance

3

2.3.

Hybrid orbital theory

3

2.4.

Molecular orbital theory

 

 

2.4.1.

molecular orbital diagram (H2 molecule)

3

 

2.4.2.

molecular orbital diagram (N2 and O2 molecules)

3

 

2.4.3.

bond orders in O2, O2, O2+

3

 

2.4.4.

unpaired electrons and paramagnetism

3

 

 

 

 

3. Chemical calculations

 

3.1.1.

Balancing equations

1

 

3.1.2.

Stoichiometric calculations

1

 

3.1.3.

Mass and volume relations (including density)

1

 

3.1.4.

Empirical formula

1

 

3.1.5.

Avogadro’s number

1

 

3.1.6.

Concentration calculations

1

 

 

 

 

4. Periodic trends

4.1.

Electron configuration

 

 

4.1.1.

Pauli exclusion principle

1

 

4.1.2.

Hund’s Rule

1

 

4.1.3.

Main group elements

1

 

4.1.4.

Transition metal elements

1

 

4.1.5.

Lanthanide and actinide metals

3

4.2.

Electronegativity

1

4.3.

Electron affinity

2

4.4.

First ionization energy

1

4.5.

Atomic size

1

4.6.

Ion size

1

4.7.

Highest oxidation number

1

 

 

 

 

5. Inorganic Chemistry

5.1.

Introduction

 

 

5.1.1.

Trends in physical properties of elements (Main groups)

 

 

 

5.1.1.1.

melting point

1

 

 

5.1.1.2.

boiling point

1

 

 

5.1.1.3.

metal character

1

 

 

5.1.1.4.

magnetic properties

3

 

 

5.1.1.5.

electrical conductivity

2

 

5.1.2.

Oxidation number

1

 

5.1.3.

Nomenclature

 

 

 

5.1.3.1.

main group compounds

1

 

 

5.1.3.2.

transition metal compounds

1

 

 

5.1.3.3.

simple metal complexes

3

5.2.

Groups 1 and 2

 

 

5.2.1.

Trend in reactivity of (heavy elements more reactive)

1

 

5.2.2.

Products of reaction with

 

 

 

5.2.2.1.

water

1

 

 

5.2.2.2.

halogens

1

 

 

5.2.2.3.

oxygen

2

 

5.2.3.

Basicity of oxides

1

 

5.2.4.

Properties of hydrides

3

 

5.2.5.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

5.3.

Groups 13 – 18 and Hydrogen

 

 

5.3.1.

Binary molecular compounds of hydrogen

 

 

 

5.3.1.1.

Formulae

1

 

 

5.3.1.2.

Acid-base properties of CH4, NH3, H2O, H2S

1

 

 

5.3.1.3.

Other properties

3

 

5.3.2.

 

 

 

 

Group 13

 

 

 

5.3.2.1

The oxidation state of boron and aluminium in their oxides and chlorides is +3

1

 

 

5.3.2.2.

The acid-base properties of aluminium oxide/hydroxide

2

 

 

5.3.2.3.

Reaction of boron(III) oxide with water

3

 

 

5.3.2.4.

Reaction of boron(III) chloride with water

3

 

 

5.3.2.5.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

 

5.3.3.

Group 14

 

 

 

5.3.3.1.

The oxidation state of Si in its chloride and oxide is +4

1

 

 

5.3.3.2.

The +2 and +4 oxidation states of carbon, tin and lead, the acid-base and redox properties of the oxides and chlorides

2

 

 

5.3.3.3.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

 

5.3.4.

Group 15

 

 

 

5.3.4.1.

Phosphorus(+5) oxide and chloride, and their reaction with water

2

 

 

5.3.4.2.

Phosphorus(+3) oxide and chloride, and their reaction with water

2

 

 

5.3.4.3.

Oxides of nitrogen

 

 

 

 

a. Reaction of NO to form NO2

1

 

 

 

b. Dimerization of NO2

1

 

 

 

c. Reaction of NO2 with water

1

 

 

5.3.4.4.

Redox properties of

 

 

 

 

a. HNO3 and nitrates

1

 

 

 

b. HNO2 and NH2NH2

3

 

 

5.3.4.5.

Bi(+5) and Bi(+3)

3

 

 

5.3.4.6.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

 

5.3.5.

Group 16

 

 

 

5.3.5.1.

The +4 and +6 oxidation states of sulfur, reaction of their oxides with water, properties of their acids

1

 

 

5.3.5.2.

Reaction of thiosulfate anion with I2

3

 

 

5.3.5.3.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

 

5.3.6.

Group 17 (Halogens)

 

 

 

5.3.6.1.

Reactivity and oxidant strength decreases from F2 to I2

1

 

 

5.3.6.2.

Acid-base properties of the hydrogen halides

1

 

 

5.3.6.3.

The oxidation state of fluorine in its compounds is –1

1

 

 

5.3.6.4.

The –1, +1, +3, +5, +7 oxidation states of chlorine

1

 

 

5.3.6.5.

Mononuclear oxoanions of chlorine

2

 

 

5.3.6.6.

Reactions of halogens with water

3

 

 

5.3.6.7.

Reaction of Cl2O and Cl2O7 with water

3

 

 

5.3.6.8.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

 

5.3.7.

Group 18

3

5.4.

Transition elements

 

 

5.4.1.

Common oxidation states of common transition metals:
Cr(+2), Cr(+3) Mn(+2), Mn(+4), Mn(+7) Ag(+1)
Fe(+2), Fe(+3) Co(+2) Zn(+2)
Hg(+1), Hg(+2) Cu(+1), Cu(+2) Ni(+2)

1

 

5.4.2.

Colours of ions listed above in aqueous solution

2

 

5.4.3.

Insolubility of Ag, Hg and Cu  in HCl

2

 

5.4.4.

M2+ arising by dissolution of the other metals in HCl

2

 

5.4.5.

Cr(OH)3 and Zn(OH)2 are amphoteric and the other +2
oxides/hydroxides of the metals listed above are basic

2

 

5.4.6.

MnO4 and Cr2O72– are strong oxidants in acid solution

1

 

5.4.7.

pH dependence of products of MnO4 acting as oxidant

2

 

5.4.8.

Interconversion between CrO42– and Cr2O72–

3

 

5.4.9.

Other compounds, properties and oxidation states

3

5.5.

Lanthanides and actinides

3

5.6.

Coordination chemistry including stereochemistry

 

 

5.6.1.

Definition of coordination number

1

 

5.6.2.

Writing equations for complexation reactions given all formulae

1

 

5.6.3.

Formulae of common complex ions

 

 

 

5.6.3.1.

Ag(NH3)2+

1

 

 

5.6.3.2.

Ag(S2O3)23–

3

 

 

5.6.3.3.

FeSCN2+

3

 

 

5.6.3.4.

Cu(NH3)42+

1

 

 

5.6.3.5.

Other complex ions

3

 

5.6.4.

(6.5) Ligand field theory (eg and t2g terms, high and low spin)

3

 

5.6.5.

Stereochemistry

 

 

 

5.6.5.1.

(6.7) cis and trans

3

 

 

5.6.5.2.

enantiomers

3

5.7.

Selected industrial processes

 

 

5.7.1.

Preparation of H2SO4

1

 

5.7.2.

Preparation of NH3

1

 

5.7.3.

Preparation of Na2CO3

2

 

5.7.4.

Preparation of Cl2 and NaOH

2

 

5.7.5.

Preparation of HNO3

2

 

 

 

 

6. Physical chemistry

6.1.

Gases

 

 

6.1.1.

Ideal gas law

1

 

6.1.2.

van der Waal’s gas law

3

 

6.1.3.

definition of partial pressure

2

 

6.1.4.

Dalton’s Law

3

6.2.

Thermodynamics

 

 

6.2.1.

First Law

 

 

 

6.2.1.1.

Concept of system and surroundings

2

 

 

6.2.1.2.

Energy, heat and work

2

 

6.2.2.

Enthalpy

 

 

 

6.2.2.1.

Relationship between internal energy and enthalpy

3

 

 

6.2.2.2.

Definition of heat capacity

2

 

 

6.2.2.3.

Difference between Cp and Cv (ideal gas only)

3

 

 

6.2.2.4.

Enthalpy is a state property (Hess’s Law)

2

 

 

6.2.2.5.

Born-Haber cycle for ionic compounds

3

 

 

6.2.2.6.

Use of standard formation enthalpies

2

 

 

6.2.2.7.

Enthalpies of solution and solvation

3

 

 

6.2.2.8.

Bond enthalpies (definition and use)

2

 

6.2.3.

Second Law (Entropy and Free Energy)

 

 

 

6.2.3.1.

Entropy definition (dq / T)

3

 

 

6.2.3.2.

Entropy and disorder

3

 

 

6.2.3.3.

Entropy definition (S = k ln W)

3

 

 

6.2.3.4.

Gibbs energy definition (DG = DH TDS)

3

 

 

6.2.3.5.

Using DG to predict direction of natural change

3

 

 

6.2.3.6.

Relationship between DG° and equilibrium constant K

3

6.3.

Equilibrium

 

 

6.3.1.

Acid-base

 

 

 

6.3.1.1.

Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases

1

 

 

6.3.1.2.

Bronsted-Lowry definitions

1

 

 

6.3.1.3.

Conjugate acids and bases

1

 

 

6.3.1.4.

pH definition

1

 

 

6.3.1.5.

Kw definition

1

 

 

6.3.1.6.

Ka and Kb as a measure of acid and base strength

1

 

 

6.3.1.7.

Acidity or basicity of ions

1

 

 

6.3.1.8.

Calculation of pH from pKa(weak acid)

1

 

 

6.3.1.9.

Calculation of pH of a simple buffer solution

2

 

6.3.2.

Gas phase

 

 

 

6.3.2.1.

Equilibrium constant in partial pressures

3

 

 

6.3.2.2.

Relating Kp and Kc

3

 

6.3.3.

Solubility

 

 

 

6.3.3.1.

Solubility constant (product) definition (Ksp)

2

 

 

6.3.3.2.

Calculation of solubility in water from Ksp

2

 

6.3.4.

Compleximetric

 

 

 

6.3.4.1.

Complex formation constant (definition)

3

 

 

6.3.4.2.

Problems involving compleximetric equilibria

3

 

 

6.3.4.3.

Lewis acids and bases

3

 

 

6.3.4.4.

Hard and soft Lewis acids and bases

3

 

6.3.5.

Phase

 

 

 

6.3.5.1.

Temperature dependence of vapour pressure

3

 

 

6.3.5.2.

Clausius-Clapeyron equation

3

 

 

6.3.5.3.

Single component phase diagrams

 

 

 

 

a. triple point

3

 

 

 

b. critical point

3

 

 

6.3.5.4.

liquid-vapour system

 

 

 

 

a. ideal and nonideal systems

3

 

 

 

b. diagram

3

 

 

 

c. use in fractional distillation

3

 

 

6.3.5.5.

Henry’s Law

3

 

 

6.3.5.6.

Raoult’s Law

3

 

 

6.3.5.7.

Deviation from Raoult’s Law

3

 

 

6.3.5.8.

Boiling point elevation

3

 

 

6.3.5.9.

Freezing point depression

3

 

 

6.3.5.10.

Osmotic pressure

3

 

 

6.3.5.11.

Partition coefficient

3

 

 

6.3.5.12.

Solvent extraction

3

 

6.3.6.

Multiple

 

 

 

6.3.6.1.

Calculation of pH for multiprotic acids

3

 

 

6.3.6.2.

Calculation of pH for weak acid mixtures

3

6.4.

Electrochemistry

 

 

6.4.1.

Electromotive force (definition)

1

 

6.4.2.

First kind electrodes

1

 

6.4.3.

Standard electrode potential

1

 

6.4.4.

Nernst equation

3

 

6.4.5.

Second kind electrodes

3

 

6.4.6.

Relationship between DG and electromotive force

3

 

 

 

 

7. Chemical kinetics (Homogeneous reactions)

7.1.

Introduction

 

 

7.1.1.

Factors affecting reaction rate

1

 

7.1.2.

Reaction coordinates and the basic idea of a transition state

1

7.2.

Rate law

 

 

7.2.1.

Differential rate law

2

 

7.2.2.

Concept of reaction order

2

 

7.2.3.

Rate constant definition

2

 

7.2.4.

First order reactions

 

 

 

7.2.4.1.

Dependence of concentration on time

3

 

 

7.2.4.2.

Concept of half life

3

 

 

7.2.4.3.

Relationship between half life and rate constant

3

 

 

7.2.4.4.

Calculation of first order rate constant from

 

 

 

 

a. differential rate law

3

 

 

 

b. integrated rate law

3

 

 

7.2.4.5.

Rate constant for second and third order reactions

3

7.3.

Reaction mechanisms

 

 

7.3.1.

Concept of molecularity

3

 

7.3.2.

Rate-determining step

3

 

7.3.3.

Basic concepts of collision theory

3

 

7.3.4.

Opposing parallel and consecutive reactions

3

 

7.3.5.

Arrhenius’s law

3

 

 

7.3.5.1.

Definition of activation energy

3

 

 

7.3.5.2.

Calculation of activation energy

3

 

 

 

 

8. Spectroscopy

8.1.

UV/visible

 

 

8.1.1.

Identification of aromatic compound

3

 

8.1.2.

Identification of chromophore

3

 

8.1.3.

Dyes: colour vs structure

3

 

8.1.4.

Beer’s Law

3

8.2.

Infrared

 

 

8.2.1.

Interpretation using a table of frequencies

3

 

8.2.2.

Recognition of hydrogen bonds

3

8.3.

x-Ray

 

 

8.3.1.

Bragg’s Law

3

 

8.3.2.

Concept of

 

 

 

8.3.2.1.

coordination number

3

 

 

8.3.2.2.

unit cell

3

 

8.3.3.

Solid structures

 

 

 

8.3.3.1.

NaCl

3

 

 

8.3.3.2.

CsCl

3

 

 

8.3.3.3.

metals

3

8.4.

NMR

 

 

8.4.1.

General Concepts

 

 

 

8.4.1.1.

chemical shift

3

 

 

8.4.1.2.

spin-spin coupling and coupling constants

3

 

 

8.4.1.3.

integration

3

 

8.4.2.

Interpretation of a simple 1H spectrum (like ethanol)

3

 

8.4.3.

Identification of o- and p-disubstituted benzene

3

 

8.4.4.

Interpretation of simple spectra of 13C (proton decoupled) and other 1/2 spin nuclei

3

8.5.

Mass spectrometry

 

 

8.5.1.1.

Recognition of molecular ion

3

 

8.5.1.2.

Recognition of fragments with the help of a table

3

 

8.5.1.3.

Recognition of typical isotope distribution

3

 

 

 

 

9. Organic Chemistry

9.1.

Introduction

 

 

9.1.1.

(3.1.1) Alkane naming (IUPAC)

1

 

9.1.2.

Trends in boiling points of

 

 

 

9.1.2.1.

(3.1.3) alkanes with structure

1

 

 

9.1.2.2.

(3.7.1) alcohols vs ethers due to hydrogen-bonding

1

 

9.1.3.

(3.3.1, 3.4.1) Geometry at singly, doubly, and triply bonded carbon

1

 

9.1.4.

Identification of common functional groups

1

 

9.1.5.

Isomerism of alkenes

 

 

 

9.1.5.1.

cis-trans

1

 

 

9.1.5.2.

E/Z

3

 

9.1.6.

Enantiomers

 

 

 

9.1.6.1.

Optical activity

2

 

 

9.1.6.2.

R/S nomenclature

3

9.2.

Reactivity

 

 

9.2.1.

Alkanes

 

 

 

9.2.1.1.

reaction with halogens

 

 

 

 

a. products

1

 

 

 

b. free radical mechanism (initiation, termination)

2

 

 

9.2.1.2.

Cycloalkanes

 

 

 

 

a. names

2

 

 

 

b. Strain in small rings

3

 

 

 

c. chair/boat conformations of cyclohexane

3

 

9.2.2.

Alkenes

 

 

 

9.2.2.1.

Products from Br2, HBr and H2O/H+

1

 

 

9.2.2.2.

Markownikoff’s rule

2

 

 

9.2.2.3.

Mechanism involving carbocation intermediates

3

 

 

9.2.2.4.

Relative stability of carbocations

3

 

 

9.2.2.5.

1,4 addition to dienes

3

 

9.2.3.

Alkynes

 

 

 

9.2.3.1.

Acidity relative to alkenes

3

 

 

9.2.3.2.

Differences in chemical properties from alkenes

2

 

9.2.4.

Benzene

 

 

 

9.2.4.1.

formula

1

 

 

9.2.4.2.

stabilization by resonance

1

 

 

9.2.4.3.

electrophilic substitution (nitration, halogenation)

 

 

 

 

a. directing effect of first substituent

3

 

 

 

b. effect of first substituent on reactivity

3

 

 

 

c. explanation of substituent effects

3

 

9.2.5.

Halogen compounds

 

 

 

9.2.5.1.

Nomenclature of monofunctional

1

 

 

9.2.5.2.

Substitution reactions

 

 

 

 

a. giving alcohols

3

 

 

 

b. in which halogen is exchanged

3

 

 

 

c. reactivity

 

 

 

 

 

i. primary vs secondary vs tertiary

3

 

 

 

 

ii. aliphatic vs aromatic

3

 

 

 

d. SN1 and SN2 mechanisms

3

 

 

9.2.5.3.

Elimination reactions

2

 

 

9.2.5.4.

Competition of elimination and substitution

2

 

9.2.6.

Alcohols

 

 

 

9.2.6.1.

Nomenclature of monofunctional

1

 

 

9.2.6.2.

Comparison of acidity of alcohols and phenols

2

 

 

9.2.6.3.

Dehydration to alkenes

1

 

 

9.2.6.4.

Esters with inorganic acid

2

 

 

9.2.6.5.

Oxidation reactions

1

 

9.2.7.

Aldehydes and ketones

 

 

 

9.2.7.1.

Nomenclature of monofunctional

1

 

 

9.2.7.2.

Oxidation of aldehydes

1

 

 

9.2.7.3.

Reduction to alcohols (LiAlH4, NaBH4)

3

 

 

9.2.7.4.

Keto/enol tautomerism

3

 

 

9.2.7.5.

Nucleophilic addition reactions with

 

 

 

 

a. HCN

3

 

 

 

b. RNH2 (R = alkyl, HO, NH2)

3

 

 

 

c. enolate anions (aldol condensation)

3

 

 

 

d. alcohols to form acetals/ketals

3

 

 

 

e. Grignard reagents

3

 

9.2.8.

Carboxylic acids and their derivatives

 

 

 

9.2.8.1.

Nomenclature of carboxylic acids and their derivatives (esters, acid halides, amides)

2

 

 

9.2.8.2.

Acidity strength related to inductive effects

3

 

 

9.2.8.3.

Preparation of carboxylic acids by hydrolysis of

 

 

 

 

a. esters (including soaps)

1

 

 

 

b. amides

2

 

 

 

c. nitriles

3

 

 

9.2.8.4.

Reaction of carboxylic acids

 

 

 

 

a. with alcohols to form esters

1

 

 

 

b. to form acid chlorides

3

 

 

 

c. to form anhydrides

3

 

 

9.2.8.5.

Reaction of acid chlorides to form amides

3

 

 

9.2.8.6.

Mechanism of esterification

3

 

 

9.2.8.7.

Multifunctional acids (hydroxyacids, ketoacids)

3

 

 

9.2.8.8.

Polycarboxylic acids

3

 

9.2.9.

Amines

 

 

 

9.2.9.1.

Nomenclature

 

 

 

 

a. simple amines

1

 

 

 

b. recognition of primary, secondary, tertiary

1

 

 

9.2.9.2.

Basicity

 

 

 

 

a. As a property of an amine

1

 

 

 

b. Comparison of basicity of aliphatic and aromatic

3

 

 

 

c. Comparison of basicity of amines and amides

3

 

 

 

d. Preparation of amines

 

 

 

 

 

i. from halides

3

 

 

 

 

ii. from aromatic nitro compounds

3

 

 

 

 

iii. from amides (by hydrolysis)

3

 

 

9.2.9.3.

Diazotization

 

 

 

 

a. of aliphatic amines

3

 

 

 

b. of aromatic amines

3

 

 

 

 

 

10. Polymers

10.1.

Synthetic

 

 

10.1.1.

Addition polymers

 

 

 

10.1.1.1.

polystyrene

2

 

 

10.1.1.2.

polyethene

1

 

 

10.1.1.3.

chain mechanism of formation

2

 

10.1.2.

Condensation polymers

 

 

 

10.1.2.1.

polyesters

2

 

 

10.1.2.2.

polyamides

2

 

10.1.3.

Silicones

3

 

10.1.4.

Concept of cross-linking and its affect on properties

3

10.2.

Natural

 

 

10.2.1.

Silicates

3

 

10.2.2.

Rubber

3

 

 

 

 

11. Biochemistry

11.1.

Carbohydrates

 

 

11.1.1.

Glucose and fructose

 

 

 

11.1.1.1.

chain formulae

1

 

 

11.1.1.2.

Fischer projections

2

 

 

11.1.1.3.

Haworth formulae

3

 

11.1.2.

Difference between starch and cellulose

2

 

11.1.3.

Difference between a- and b- D glucose

2

11.2.

Fats

 

 

11.2.1.

Structure of fats in relationship to properties

2

 

11.2.2.

Formula of glycerol

1

11.3.

Nitrogen-containing Compounds of Biological Importance

 

 

11.3.1.

Amino acids

 

 

 

11.3.1.1.

Ionic structure

1

 

 

11.3.1.2.

Isoelectric point

3

 

 

11.3.1.3.

20 amino acids (classification with structures provided)

2

 

 

11.3.1.4.

Separation by electrophoresis

3

 

 

11.3.1.5.

The peptide linkage

1

 

11.3.2.

Proteins

 

 

 

11.3.2.1.

Primary structure

1

 

 

11.3.2.2.

–S-S- bridges

3

 

 

11.3.2.3.

Sequence analysis

3

 

 

11.3.2.4.

Secondary structure

3

 

 

11.3.2.5.

Details of a-helix structure

3

 

 

11.3.2.6.

Tertiary structure

3

 

 

11.3.2.7.

Denaturation (change in pH, temperature, metals, ethanol)

2

 

11.3.3.

Nuclei Acids and Protein Synthesis

 

 

 

11.3.3.1.

Pyrimidine and purine

3

 

 

11.3.3.2.

Nucleosides and nucleotides

3

 

 

11.3.3.3.

Formulae of pyrimidine and purine bases

3

 

 

11.3.3.4.

Difference between ribose and 2-deoxyribose

3

 

 

11.3.3.5.

Base combination CG and AT (hydrogen-bonding)

3

 

 

11.3.3.6.

Difference between DNA and RNA

3

 

 

11.3.3.7.

Difference between mRNA and tRNA

3

11.4.

Enzymes

 

 

11.4.1.1.

General properties, active centers

3

 

11.4.1.2.

Nomenclature, kinetics, coenzymes, function of ATP

3

 

 

 

 

12. Analytical chemistry

12.1.

Titrations

 

 

12.1.1.

acid-base

 

 

 

12.1.1.1.

Titration curve; pH (strong and weak acid)

2

 

 

12.1.1.2.

Choice of indicators for acidimetry

2

 

12.1.2.

Redox titration

3

12.2.

Qualitative analysis

 

 

12.2.1.

Ions (Inorganic)

 

 

 

12.2.1.1.

Identification of Ag+, Ba2+, Cl, SO42–

2

 

 

12.2.1.2.

Identification of other anions and cations

3

 

12.2.2.

Organic functional groups

 

 

 

12.2.2.1.

Lucas reagent (1-, 2-, 3-alcohols)

3

 

 

12.2.2.2.

Iodoform reaction

3

 

 

12.2.2.3.

Identification of primary, secondary, tertiary,

quarternary amines in the laboratory

3

12.3.

Chromatographic methods of separation

3

 

 

 

 

Experimental part

 

 

 

 

Level 1:

is assigned to the basic experimental activities which are supposed to be mastered by competitors very well

Level 2:

is assigned to the activities which are parts of school experimental exercises in developed countries and the authors of IChO tasks may incorporate them into the tasks without being bounded to mention it in advance

Level 3:

is assigned to such activities which are not in the chemistry syllabus in the majority of participating countries and the authors are obliged to mention them in the set of preparatory tasks

If the organizer wants to apply a technique which is not mentioned in the above syllabus, this technique is set to level 3 automatically.

 

 

 

1. Synthesis of inorganic and organic compounds

 

 

 

1.1.

Heating with burners and hotplates

1

1.2.

Heating of liquids

1

1.3.

Handling the work with inflammable substances and materials

1

1.4.

Measuring of masses (analytical balance)

1

1.5.

Measuring of volumes of liquids (measuring cylinder, pipette, burette)

1

1.6.

Preparation of solutions from a solid compound and solvent

1

1.7.

Mixing and dilution of solutions

1

1.8.

Mixing and stirring of liquids

1

1.9.

Using mixer and magnetic stirrer

2

1.10.

Using a dropping funnel

1

1.11.

Syntheses in flat bottom vessels – general principles

1

1.12.

Syntheses in round bottom vessels – general principles

1

1.13

Syntheses in a closed apparatus – general principles

1

1.14.

Using microscale equipment for synthesis

3

1.15.

Apparatus for heating of reaction mixture under reflux

2

1.16.

Apparatus for distillation of liquids at normal pressure

2

1.17.

Apparatus for distillation of liquids at reduced pressure

2

1.18.

Apparatus for steam distillation

3

1.19.

Filtration through flat paper filter

1

1.20.

Filtration through a folded paper filter

1

1.21.

Handling a water vacuum pump

1

1.22.

Filtration through a Büchner funnel

1

1.23.

Suction through a glass filter

1

1.24.

Washing of precipitates by decantation

1

1.25.

Washing of precipitates on a filter

2

1.26.

Drying of precipitates on a filter with appropriate solvents

2

1.27.

Recrystallization of substances from aqueous solution

1

1.28.

Recrystallization of substances from a known organic solvent

2

1.29.

Practical choice of an appropriate solvent for recrystallization of a substance

3

1.30.

Drying of substances in a drying box

2

1.31.

Drying of substances in a desiccator

2

1.32.

Connecting and using of a gas washing bottle

2

1.33.

Extraction with an inmiscible solvent

1

 

 

 

2. Identification of inorganic and organic compounds:
general principles

2.1.

Test-tube reactions

1

2.2.

Technique of reactions performed in a dot dish and on a filter paper

1

2.3.

Group reactions of some cations and anions specified by the organizer

2

2.4.

Selective reactions of some cations and anions specified by the organizer

2

2.5.

Specific reactions of some cations and anions specified by the organizer

3

2.6.

Identification of elements by flame coloration (using a platinum wire/MgO rod, Co-glass)

2

2.7.

Using a hand spectroscope/Bunsen spectroscope

3

2.8.

Melting point determination with Kofler or similar type of apparatus

3

2.9.

Qualitative evidence of basic functional groups of organic substances specified by the organizer

2

2.10.

Exploitation of some specific reactions for identification of organic compounds (specified by the organizer)

3

 

 

 

3. Determination of some inorganic and organic compounds:
general principles

3.1.

Quantitative determinations using precipitation reactions

2

3.2.

Igniting of a precipitate in a crucible

1

3.3.

Quantitative volumetric determinations

1

3.4.

Rules at titrating

1

3.5.

Use of a pipetting ball

1

3.6.

Preparation of a standard solution

2

3.7.

Alkalimetric and acidimetric determinations

2

3.8.

Color transitions of indicators at alkalimetric and acidimetric determinations

2

3.9.

Direct and indirect determinations (back titration)

3

3.10.

Manganometric determinations

3

3.11.

Iodometric determinations

3

3.12.

Other types of determinations on basis of redox reactions

3

3.13.

Complexometric determinations

3

3.14.

Color transitions of solutions at complexometric determinations

3

3.15.

Volumetric determinations on basis of precipitation reactions

3

3.16.

Thermometric titration

3

 

 

 

4. Special measurements and procedures

4.1.

Measuring with a pH-meter

2

4.2.

Chromatography on thin layers

3

4.3.

Column chromatography

3

4.4.

Separation on ion exchanger

3

4.5.

Measuring of UV-VIS absorbances with a spectral photometer

3

4.6.

Performing of conductivity measurements

3

 

 

 

5. Evaluation of results

5.1.

Estimation of experimental errors (significant figures, plots scales)

1

 


Exames

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

2001

2003

2004

2005

2007

2008

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016


Resultados

ee


Coordenadorias

ss